The Guidelines for Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) in Journal Policies and Practices provide standards that reward researchers for engaging in open practices, describe what openness means across the scientific process so that research can be reproduced and evaluated, and address the values of preregistration.
The guidelines discuss eight categories of transparency standards:
- citation standards
- data transparency
- analytic methods (code) transparency
- research materials transparency
- design and analysis transparency
- preregistration of studies
- preregistration of analysis plans
In addition, each category has three levels of transparency (from milder to stronger standards), allowing adopting journals to select a transparency level that what works best for authors and researchers.