Library Element Book and Thesis

Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems. 21st-Century Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Development

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Elias G. Carayannis & David F.J. Campbell, 2012. "Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems," SpringerBriefs in Business, Springer, number 978-1-4614-2062-0, December.


Developed and developing economies alike face increased resource scarcity and competitive rivalry. In this context, science and technology appear as an essential source of competitive and sustainable advantage at national and regional levels. However, the key determinant of their efficacy is the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship-enabled innovation that unlocks and captures the benefits of the science enterprise in the form of private, public or hybrid goods.  Linking basic and applied research with the market, via technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms, including government-university-industry partnerships and capital investments, constitutes the essential trigger mechanism and driving force of sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity.  In this volume, the authors define the terms and principles of knowledge creation, diffusion, and use, and establish a theoretical framework for their study.  In particular, they focus on the “Quadruple Helix” model, through which government, academia, industry, and civil society are seen as key actors promoting a democratic approach to innovation through which strategy development and decision making are exposed to feedback from key stakeholders, resulting in socially accountable policies and practices.


1. Introduction to Knowledge and Definition of Terms 

  • 1.1 Open Innovation Diplomacy, Quadruple Helix Innovation, “Mode 3” Knowledge Production System, and Fractal Research, Education and Innovation Ecosystem (FREIE) 
  • 1.2 Definition of Terms
  • 1.3 Mode 3, Quadruple Helix, Quintuple Helix, Democracy of Knowledge, Schumpeter’s Creative Destruction, and the Co-evolution of Different Knowledge Modes

2. The Conceptual Understanding of Knowledge and Innovation

  • 2.1 Innovation Placed in Context
  • 2.2 The Relationship Between Knowledge and Innovation 
  • 2.3 The “Mode 3” Knowledge Production System Multilevel Approach to Knowledge and Innovation: The “Multilevel Innovation Systems” 
  • 2.4 Linear Versus (and/or) Nonlinear Innovation Models (Modes) 
  • 2.5 Extending the “Triple Helix” to a “Quadruple Helix” Model of Knowledge and Innovation 
  • 2.6 Coexistence and Co-evolution of Different Knowledge and Innovation Paradigms 
  • 2.7 The “Co-opetitive” Networking of Knowledge Creation, Diffusion, and Use 

3. Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Technology Dynamics 

  • 3.1 Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Technology Dynamics in IT/ICT (Information Technology/Information and Communication Technology) in the Software Sector
  • 3.2 Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Technology Dynamics in Life Sciences, Biotechnology, and the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • 3.3 Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Technology Dynamics in the Machine Tool Sector 

4. Conclusion







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